中华人民共和国外交特权与豁免条例
    发表时间:2015-03-10
 

中华人民共和国主席令 第四十四号

  《中华人民共和国外交特权与豁免条例》已由中华人民共和国第六届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十七次会议于一九八六年九月五日通过,现予公布,自公布之日起施行。

                          中华人民共和国主席 李先念

                            一九八六年九月五日

《中华人民共和国外交特权与豁免条例》

  第一条 为确定外国驻中国使馆和使馆人员的外交特权与豁免,便于外国驻中国使馆代表其国家有效地执行职务,特制定本条例。

  第二条 使馆外交人员原则上应当是具有派遣国国籍的人。如果委派中国或者第三国国籍的人为使馆外交人员,必须征得中国主管机关的同意。中国主管机关可以随时撤销此项同意。

  第三条 使馆及其馆长有权在使馆馆舍和使馆馆长交通工具上,使用派遣国的国旗或者国徽。

  第四条 使馆馆舍不受侵犯。中国国家工作人员进入使馆馆舍,须经使馆馆长或者其授权人员的同意。中国有关机关应当采取适当措施,保护使馆馆舍免受侵犯或者损害。

  使馆的馆舍、设备及馆舍内其他财产和使馆交通工具免受搜查、征用、扣押或者强制执行。

  第五条 使馆馆舍免纳捐税,但为其提供特定服务所收的费用不在此限。

  使馆办理公务所收规费和手续费免纳捐税。

  第六条 使馆的档案和文件不受侵犯。

  第七条 使馆人员在中国境内有行动和旅行的自由,中国政府规定禁止或者限制进入的区域除外。

  第八条 使馆为公务目的可以与派遣国政府以及派遣国其他使馆和领事馆自由通讯。通讯可以采用一切适当方法,包括外交信使、外交邮袋和明码、密码电信在内。

  第九条 使馆设置和使用供通讯用的无线电收发信机,必须经中国政府同意。使馆运进上述设备,按中国政府的有关规定办理。

  第十条 使馆来往的公文不受侵犯。

  外交邮袋不得开拆或者扣留。

  外交邮袋以装载外交文件或者公务用品为限,应予加封并附有可资识别的外部标记。

  第十一条 外交信使必须持有派遣国主管机关出具的信使证明书。外交信使人身不受侵犯,不受逮捕或者拘留。

  临时外交信使必须持有派遣国主管机关出具的临时信使证明书,在其负责携带外交邮袋期间,享有与外交信使同等的豁免。

  商业飞机机长受委托可以转递外交邮袋,但机长必须持有委托国官方证明文件,注明所携带的外交邮袋件数。机长不视为外交信使。使馆应当派使馆人员向机长接交外交邮袋。

  第十二条 外交代表人身不受侵犯,不受逮捕或者拘留。中国有关机关应当采取适当措施,防止外交代表的人身自由和尊严受到侵犯。

  第十三条 外交代表的寓所不受侵犯,并受保护。

  外交代表的文书和信件不受侵犯。外交代表的财产不受侵犯,但第十四条另有规定的除外。

  第十四条 外交代表享有刑事管辖豁免。

  外交代表享有民事管辖豁免和行政管辖豁免,但下列各项除外:

  (一)外交代表以私人身份进行的遗产继承的诉讼;

  (二)外交代表违反第二十五条第三项规定在中国境内从事公务范围以外的职业或者商业活动的诉讼。

  外交代表免受强制执行,但对前款所列情况,强制执行对其人身和寓所不构成侵犯的,不在此限。

  外交代表没有以证人身份作证的义务。

  第十五条 外交代表和第二十条规定享有豁免的人员的管辖豁免可以由派遣国政府明确表示放弃。

  外交代表和第二十条规定享有豁免的人员如果主动提起诉讼,对与本诉直接有关的反诉,不得援用管辖豁免。

  放弃民事管辖豁免或者行政管辖豁免,不包括对判决的执行也放弃豁免。放弃对判决执行的豁免须另作明确表示。

  第十六条 外交代表免纳捐税,但下列各项除外:

  (一)通常计入商品价格或者服务价格内的捐税;

  (二)有关遗产的各种捐税,但外交代表亡故,其在中国境内的动产不在此限;

  (三)对来源于中国境内的私人收入所征的捐税;

  (四)为其提供特定服务所收的费用。

  第十七条 外交代表免除一切个人和公共劳务以及军事义务。

  第十八条 使馆运进的公务用品、外交代表运进的自用物品,按照中国政府的有关规定免纳关税和其他捐税。

  外交代表的私人行李免受查验,但中国有关机关有重大理由推定其中装有不属于前款规定免税的物品或者中国法律和政府规定禁止运进、运出或者检疫法规规定管制的物品的,可以查验。查验时,须有外交代表或者其授权人员在场。

  第十九条 使馆和使馆人员携运自用的枪支、子弹入境,必须经中国政府批准,并且按中国政府的有关规定办理。

  第二十条 与外交代表共同生活的配偶及未成年子女,如果不是中国公民,享有第十二条至第十八条所规定的特权与豁免。

  使馆行政技术人员和与其共同生活的配偶及未成年子女,如果不是中国公民并且不是在中国永久居留的,享有第十二条至第十七条所规定的特权与豁免,但民事管辖豁免和行政管辖豁免,仅限于执行公务的行为。使馆行政技术人员到任后半年内运进的安家物品享有第十八条第一款所规定的免税的特权。

  使馆服务人员如果不是中国公民并且不是在中国永久居留的,其执行公务的行为享有豁免,其受雇所得报酬免纳所得税。其到任后半年内运进的安家物品享有第十八条第一款所规定的免税的特权。

  使馆人员的私人服务员如果不是中国公民并且不是在中国永久居留的,其受雇所得的报酬免纳所得税。

  第二十一条 外交代表如果是中国公民或者获得在中国永久居留资格的外国人,仅就其执行公务的行为,享有管辖豁免和不受侵犯。

  第二十二条 下列人员享有在中国过境或者逗留期间所必需的豁免和不受侵犯:

  (一)途经中国的外国驻第三国的外交代表和与其共同生活的配偶及未成年子女;

  (二)持有中国外交签证或者持有外交护照(仅限互免签证的国家)来中国的外国官员;

  (三)经中国政府同意给予本条所规定的特权与豁免的其他来中国访问的外国人士。

  对途经中国的第三国外交信使及其所携带的外交邮袋,参照第十条、第十一条的规定办理。

  第二十三条 本中国访问的外国国家元首、政府首脑、外交部长及其他具有同等身份的官员,享有本条例所规定的特权与豁免。

  第二十四条 来中国参加联合国及其专门机构召开的国际会议的外国代表、临时来中国的联合国及其专门机构的官员和专家、联合国及其专门机构驻中国的代表机构和人员的待遇,按中国已加入的有关国际公约和中国与有关国际组织签订的协议办理。

  第二十五条 享有外交特权与豁免的人员:

  (一)应当尊重中国的法律、法规;

  (二)不得干涉中国的内政;

  (三)不得在中国境内为私人利益从事任何职业或者商业活动;

  (四)不得将使馆馆舍和使馆工作人员寓所充作与使馆职务不相符合的用途。

  第二十六条 如果外国给予中国驻该国使馆、使馆人员以及临时去该国的有关人员的外交特权与豁免,低于中国按本条例给予该国驻中国使馆、使馆人员以及临时来中国的有关人员的外交特权与豁免,中国政府根据对等原则,可以给予该国驻中国使馆、使馆人员以及临时来中国的有关人员以相应的外交特权与豁免。

  第二十七条 中国缔结或者参加的国际条约另有规定的,按照国际条约的规定办理,但中国声明保留的条款除外。

  中国与外国签订的外交特权与豁免协议另有规定的,按照协议的规定执行。

  第二十八条 本条例中下列用语的含义是:

  (一)“使馆馆长”是指派遣国委派担任此项职位的大使、公使、代办以及其他同等级别的人;

  (二)“使馆人员”是指使馆馆长和使馆工作人员;

  (三)“使馆工作人员”是指使馆外交人员、行政技术人员和服务人员;

  (四)“使馆外交人员”是指具有外交官衔的使馆工作人员;

  (五)“外交代表”是指使馆馆长或者使馆外交人员;

  (六)“使馆行政技术人员”是指从事行政和技术工作的使馆工作人员;

  (七)“使馆服务人员”是指从事服务工作的使馆工作人员;

  (八)“私人服务员”是指使馆人员私人雇用的人员;

  (九)“使馆馆舍”是指使馆使用和使馆馆长官邸的建筑物及其附属的土地。

  第二十九条 本条例自公布之日起施行。

  【名称】 REGULATIONS OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA CONCERNING DIPLO-MATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES

  【题注】

  Important Notice: (注意事项)

  英文本源自中华人民共和国务院法制局编译, 中国法制出版社出版的《中华人民共和国涉外法规汇编》(1991年7月版).

  当发生歧意时, 应以法律法规颁布单位发布的中文原文为准.

  This English document is coming from "LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA GOVERNING FOREIGN-RELATED MATTERS" (1991.7) which is compiled by the Brueau of Legislative Affairs of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, and is published by the China Legal System Publishing House.

  In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail.

  Whole Document (法规全文)

  REGULATIONS OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA CONCERNING DIPLO- MATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES

  (Adopted at the 17th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Sixth National People's Congress, promulgated by Order No. 44 of the President of the People's Republic of China and effective as of September 5, 1986)

  Article 1

  The present Regulations are formulated for the purpose of defining the diplomatic privileges and immunities of the diplomatic missions in China and their members and facilitating the efficient performance of the functions of the diplomatic missions in China as representing States.

  Article 2

  The members of the diplomatic staff of a mission shall in principle be of the nationality of the sending State. They may be appointed from among persons of Chinese or third-state nationality only with the consent of the competent Chinese authorities, which may be withdrawn at any time by the said authorities.

  Article 3

  The mission and its head shall have the right to use the flag and emblem of the sending State on the premises of the mission and on the means of transport of the head of the mission.

  Article 4

  The premises of the mission shall be inviolable. Chinese government functionaries may enter them only with the consent of the head of the mission or another member of the mission authorized by him. The Chinese authorities concerned shall take appropriate measures to protect the premises of the mission against any intrusion or damage. The premises of the mission, their furnishings and other property thereon and the means of transport of the mission shall be immune from search, requisition, attachment or execution.

  Article 5

  The premises of the mission shall be exempt from dues and taxes, other than such as represent payment for specific services rendered.

  The fees and charges levied by the mission in the course of its official duties shall be exempt from all dues and taxes.

  Article 6

  The archives and documents of the mission shall be inviolable.

  Article 7

  The members of the mission shall enjoy freedom of movement and travel within Chinese territory except for areas the entry into which is prohibited or restricted by the regulations of the Chinese Government.

  Article 8

  The mission may for official purposes communicate freely with the Government and the other missions and consulates of the sending State. In so doing, it may employ all appropriate means, including diplomatic couriers, diplomatic bag, and messages in code or cipher.

  Article 9

  The mission may install and use a wireless transmitter-receiver for the purpose of communication only with the consent of the Chinese Government.

  The import of the above-mentioned equipment shall be subject to the relevant procedure as specified by the Chinese Government.

  Article 10

  The official correspondence of the mission shall be inviolable.

  The diplomatic bag shall not be opened or detained.

  The diplomatic bag may contain only diplomatic papers or articles intended for official use and must be sealed and bear visible external marks of its contents.

  Article 11

  The diplomatic courier shall be provided with a courier certificate issued by the competent authorities of the sending State. He shall enjoy personal inviolability and shall not be liable to arrest or detention.

  Diplomatic couriers ad hoc shall be provided with certificates of courier ad hoc issued by the competent authorities of the sending State, and shall enjoy the same immunities as the diplomatic courier while charged with the carrying of the diplomatic bag. A diplomatic bag may be entrusted to the captain of a commercial aircraft. He shall be provided with an official document issued by the consigner state indicating the number of packages constituting the bag, but he shall not be regarded as a diplomatic courier. The mission shall send its members to receive the diplomatic bag from the captain of the aircraft or deliver it to him.

  Article 12

  The person of a diplomatic agent shall be inviolable. He shall not be liable to arrest or detention. The Chinese authorities concerned shall take appropriate measures to prevent any attack on his personal freedom and dignity.

  Article 13

  The residence of a diplomatic agent shall enjoy inviolability and protection. His papers, correspondence and, except as provided in Article 14, his property, shall be inviolable.

  Article 14

  A diplomatic agent shall enjoy immunity from criminal jurisdiction.

  He shall also enjoy immunity from civil and administrative jurisdiction, except in the case of:

  (1) an action relating to succession in which he is involved as a private person;

  (2) an action relating to any professional or commercial activity conducted by hm in China outside his official functions in violation of paragraph 3 of Article 25. No measures of execution shall be taken in respect of a diplomatic agent except in cases coming under the preceding paragraphs of this Article, where the measures of execution do not constitute any violations of his person and residence.

  A diplomatic agent is not obliged to give evidence as a witness.

  Article 15

  The immunity from jurisdiction of diplomatic agents and of persons enjoying immunity under Article 20 may be waived through explicit expression by the Government of the sending State.

  The initiation of proceedings by a diplomatic agent or by a person enjoying immunity from jurisdiction under Article 20 shall preclude him from invoking immunity from jurisdiction in respect of any counter-claim directly connected with the claim. Waiver of immunity from civil or administrative jurisdiction shall not imply waiver of immunity in respect of the execution of the judgment, for which a separate and explicit waiver shall be necessary.

  Article 16

  A diplomatic agent shall be exempt from all dues and taxes, except:

  (1) dues and taxes of a kind which are normally incorporated in the price of goods or services;

  (2) estate, succession or inheritance duties, except for the movable property in China of a deceased diplomatic agent;

  (3) dues and taxes on private income having its source in China;

  (4) charges levied for specific services rendered.

  Article 17

  Diplomatic agents shall be exempt from all personal and public services as well as military obligations.

  Article 18

  Imported articles for the official use of the mission and those for the personal use of a diplomatic agent shall, in accordance with the relevant regulations of the Chinese Government, be exempt from customs duties and all other related dues and taxes. The personal baggage of a diplomatic agent shall be exempt from inspection, unless the competent Chinese authorities have serious grounds for presuming that it contains articles not covered by the exemptions specified in the previous paragraph, or articles the import or export of which is prohibited by Chinese laws and government regulations or controlled by the quarantine law and regulations. Such inspection shall be conducted in the presence of the diplomatic agent or of his authorized representative.

  Article 19

  The diplomatic missions and their members may bring and import firearms and bullets into China for their personal use, subject to the approval of the Chinese government and to its relevant regulations.

  Article 20

  The spouse and under-age children of a diplomatic agent forming part of his household shall, if they are not nationals of China, enjoy the privileges and immunities specified in Article 12 to 18.

  The members of the administrative and technical staff of the mission, together with their spouses and under-age children forming part of their respective households, shall, if they are not nationals of and permanently resident in China, enjoy the privileges and immunities specified in Articles 12 to 17. However, the immunity from civil and administrative jurisdiction shall be confined to acts performed in the course of official duties. The members of the administrative and technical staff shall enjoy the privilege of exemption from dues and taxes specified in paragraph one of Article 18 in respect of articles intended for their establishment which are imported within six months of the time of installation.

  The members of the service staff of the mission who are not nationals of and permanently resident in China shall enjoy immunity in respect of acts performed in the course of official duties and exemption from income tax on the emoluments they receive by reason of their employment. They shall enjoy the privilege of exemption from dues and taxes as specified in paragraph one of Article 18 of the present Regulations in respect of articles intended for their establishment which are imported within six months of the time of installation.

  The private attendants of members of the mission shall, if they are not nationals of and permanently resident in China, be exempt from income tax on the emoluments they receive by reason of their employment.

  Article 21

  Diplomatic agents who are nationals of China or foreigners having obtained permanent residence in China shall enjoy immunity from jurisdiction and inviolability only in respect of acts performed in the course of official duties.

  Article 22

  The following persons shall enjoy immunity and inviolability necessary for their transit through or sojourn in China:

  (1) a diplomatic agent stationed in a third State who passes through China together with his spouse and underage children forming part of his household;

  (2) a visiting foreign official who has obtained a diplomatic visa from China or who holds a diplomatic passport of a State with which China has an agreement on the mutual exemption of visas;

  (3) other visiting foreigners to whom the Chinese Government has granted the privileges and immunities specified in the present Article.

  The provisions of Articles 10 and 11 shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to a diplomatic courier of a third state passing through China and his accompanying diplomatic bag.

  Article 23

  Visiting heads of State or government, foreign ministers and other officials of comparable status from foreign States shall enjoy the privileges and immunities specified in the present Regulations.

  Article 24

  Representatives of foreign States coming to China to attend international conferences sponsored by the United Nations or its specialized agencies, visiting officials and experts of the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and offices of the United Nations and its specialized agencies in China and their personnel shall enjoy such treatment as specified in the relevant international conventions to which China has acceded and agreements which China has concluded with the international organizations concerned.

  Article 25

  Persons enjoying diplomatic privileges and immunities under the present Regulations shall:

  (1) respect Chinese laws and regulations;

  (2) not interfere in the internal affairs of China;

  (3) not practise for personal profit any professional or commercial activity on Chinese territory;

  (4) not use the premises of the mission and the residence of the members of the staff of the mission for purposes incompatible with the functions of the mission.

  Article 26

  In case the diplomatic privileges and immunities accorded by a foreign State to the Chinese mission and its members in that State and to visiting Chinese personnel concerned are fewer than those China would give under the present Regulations to the mission of that State and its members in China and its visiting personnel concerned, the Chinese Government may accord them such diplomatic privileges and immunities as appropriate on a reciprocal basis.

  Article 27

  Where there are other provisions in international treaties to which China is a contracting or acceding party, the provisions of those treaties shall prevail, with the exception of those provisions on which China has expressed reservations. Where there are other provisions in agreements on diplomatic privileges and immunities between China and other countries, the provisions of those agreements shall prevail.

  Article 28

  For the purpose of the present Regulations, the following expressions shall have the meanings hereunder assigned to them:

  (1) the "head of the mission" is the ambassador, minister, charge d'affaires or other person of equivalent rank charged by the sending State with the duty of acting in that capacity;

  (2) the "members of the mission" are the head of the mission and the members of the staff of the mission;

  (3) the "members of the staff of the mission" are the members of the diplomatic staff, of the administrative and technical staff and of the service staff of the mission;

  (4) the "members of the diplomatic staff of the mission" are the members of the staff of the mission having diplomatic rank;

  (5) a "diplomatic agent" is the head of the mission or a member of the diplomatic staff of the mission;

  (6) the "members of the administrative and technical staff of the mission" are the members of the staff of the mission engaged in the administrative and technical work of the mission;

  (7) the "members of the service staff of the mission" are the members of the staff of the mission in the domestic service of the mission;

  (8) a "private attendant" is a person in the private employment of a member of the mission;

  (9) the "premises of the mission" are the buildings and the land ancillary thereto used for the purposes of the mission and the residence of the head of the mission.

  Article 29

  The present Regulations shall enter into force on the date of their promulgation.